The topics listed below have been discussed during lectures and are
subject to multiple choice
questions. In addition study questions and the topics for short essay questions are listed below.
Explain the structure of trophic structures (energy pyramids). Include a discussion of the reason for the shape of the structure (hint: involves the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels) and what is represented by the structure. Explain how biological magnification occurs through the trophic structure - be sure to discuss the types of materials which are magnified.
Explain the adaptations of marine mammals which enable them to dive. Be sure to consider anatomical/structural (lungs, circulatory system), behavioral (mammalian diving response) and physiological adaptations (oxygen debt).
Discuss the Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Comnunity and how . How does the base of this food web differ from all others, where is it found, what are the physical conditions, and what does the existence of nearly the same groups of organisms all over the globe tell us about dispersal?
Explain the way toothed whales produce and use echolocation: include the anatomical features, types of sound and ways in which the different typews of sound are used.
Explain the adaptations of intertidal invertebrates to temperature, desiccation and respiratory stress. Be sure to describe each type of adaptation, how it works, the benefit to the organism, and give examples of the organisms which employ each type of adaptation.
The following review questions may assist you in your exam preparation.
* Where on the food web do the largest of the marine mammals feed?
* Which of the groups of cetaceans feed on fish and squid?
* How is the means of heat conservation/insulation of the sea otters related to their appetite?
* What are the adaptations of marine mammals to conserve heat?
* What adaptations of marine mammals prevent gas from accumulating in their tissues while diving?
* Which whales migrate approximately 12,000 per year along the eastern Pacific?
* How do you describe the migratory and mating cycle of the gray whale?
* Which group of cetaceans are today in the largest numbers?
* How has purse seining been related to dolphin population change in the eastern Pacific?
* How has the number of whales captured changed over the last 30 years?
* How did the advent of the steamship change the whaling industry?
* What is the primary diet of the sea lions and seals off our coast?
* What are the recommendations of the opinion of the scientific research branch of the IWC with respect to whaling?
* What are the adaptations of marine mammals for diving?
* What uses of sound are employed by dolphins?
* What physiological adaptation allows marine mammals to repay and oxyged debt more rapidly than terrestrial mammals?
* To calculate the amountof enery passed between trophic levels one must subtract what from the amount ingested?
* What is the average amount of energy transmitted between the levels of a trophic structure?
* Whaat effect does an abundance of generalist feeders have on the stability of a food web?
* How does the complexity of marine communities change between teh tropics and polar regions?
* How does the concentration of lipid soluble toxins change in a trophic structure?
* What is the "niche" of a species?
* What is a "structuring species" of a community?
* Contrast biotic and abiotic factors of the environment.
* What is a resource as defined by ecologists?
* Under what conditions does competition occur?
* For what resources are algae most likely to compete?
* What resources do BOTH plants and animals require in the rocky intertidal zone?
* What effect did the barnacle Balanus have on the lower distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus?
* What are the different types of symbioses and how do they differ?
* What is the tidal regime of southern California?
* The highest high tides and lowest low tides occur during which phases of the moon?
* What is intertidal zonation?
* How should the vertical extent of the intertidal zone differ between areas exposed and protected from waves?
* In general, how are biological and physical factors supposed to limit the distribution of intertidal invertebrates?
* What means do marineintertidal invertebrates, such as mussels, use to reduce their body temperature?
* How and when do mussels repay any oxygen debt they accumulate?
* What is meant by the term "latitudinal submergence"?
* What is "acclimation" and of what importance is it to marine invertebrates and fishes?
* What mecchanisms are responsible for clustering in mussels in the intertidal zone?
* What type of feeding do you think would be the most common for sessile intertidal invertebrates?
* Compare the physical conditions between the upper, middle and lower rocky intertidal zone.
* What effect would artifically introducing red light beneath a heavy kelp canopy have on the type of algae living there?
* How may kelps affect the abundance and types of species of algae growing beneath their canopies?
* Kelp forests in less frequently disturbed protected waters differ from forests in exposed locations in what respect?
* How would the reintroduction of sea otters to southern California most likely affect the abundance of fish in kelp forests?
* How does the majority of biomass/energy derived from algae enter into the kelp forest community food web?
* Where in the kelp forest are the majority of larvae and microscopic species found?
* How do El Nino events cause kelp forests to decrease in density?
* What stage of the growth cycle of Macrocystis is affected by a lack of blue light and therefore limits the depth distribution of this species?
* What were the actoions taken to restore the kelp forest at White's Point, Palos Verdes Peninsula, and which are today thought to have been necessary?
* What factor affect the distribution of the sea pansy, Renilla, off Zuma beach?
* What is the relationship between Astropecten and Armina with respect to predation on Renilla?
* Why are only the very small Renilla found high in the subtidal of Zuma beach?
* How do Renilla, Dendraster, Astropecten and Armina feed?
* What community differs from all other known communities on earth in dependence on photosynthesis?
* What is the primary producer, or the bottom of the food chain, in the hydrothermal vent community?
* Describe the food web for the deep sea hydrothermal vent community.
* Approximately what percentage of organisms found in the hydrothermal vent communities are "new" to science?
* Where are deep sea hydrothermal vents located?
* What are the primary sources of nutrition of stony corals?
* How would you describe the feeding type (herbivore, carnivore, etc.) of most coral reef fishes?
* What is the importance of activity patterns for most coral reef organisms?
* How do zooxanthellae algae affect the depth limit to the distribution of corals?
* How are coral reefs "cemented" together?
* What invertebrate is known to move over coral reefs in large numbers and digest away the soft tissues of stony corals?
* What is a fringing coral reef?
* How do periodic hurricanes affect the diversity of corals on coral reefs?
* Coral "bleaching" occurs under what conditions?
* What effect do sediments and freshwater from tropical rivers have on corals?
* What is the general path of energy thorough the Antarctic food web?
* Where are diatoms found to grow before the ice melts back in Antarctica?
* How much does the area of the Antarctic continent change over the year?
* What factors are limiting to the growth of phytoplankton in the Antarctic ecosystem?
* What aspect of the molting and size change of krill makes it difficult to accurately estimate age?
* What does the rate of survivorship of penguin chicks in Antarctica suggest about the hashness of the environment?
* How would you describe the diversity of Antarctic fishes?