Biology 3
Second Mid-Term Review


The topics for this exam are plant biology, digestion, respiration, excretory system and the nervous system. Read and answer these questions after you have studied the for the examination. If you have studied the material sufficiently you should know the answers.
 

* Where exactly in the leaf of the plant is oxygen produced?
* What materials are absorbed through the roots of plants?
* What are the transport tissues of plants and what materials are carried in the different types of tissues?
* Where are organic materials synthesized in plants?
* Explain root pressure theory of transport of water and materials through the xylem.
* What structure produces the pollen of a plant?
* What part of a flower is the fruit?
* Where does the pollen grain germinate on the flower?
* What types of flowers are generally pollinate by wind?
* What are the different mechanisms of seed dispersal?
* What is the relationship between fruits and plant dispersal?
* What is the overall life-history strategy of the ephemeral or "weed: plant species?
* What gasses are produced and consumed by plants in the absence of light?
* What are the end products of photosynthesis?
* What are the characteristics of the monocot and dicot plants?
* Where are proteins digested and absorbed?
* What is the source of the digestive enzymes secreted into the small intestine?
* Where are most nutrients absorbed into the circulatory system and though what types of blood vessels?
* What hormone is under-produced to create the condition of diabetes mellitus?
* What digestive enzyme is secreted into the saliva?
* What digestive events occur within the stomach?
* What compounds are produced in the large intestine?
* What are the digestive products of the liver?
* How does the pH of the digestive system vary throughout the alimentary canal?
* Through what vessels are fatty acids absorbed?
* What are the levels of exchange of gasses and nutrients?
* What are the mechanics of the breathing cycle?
* Where in the respiratory system does gas diffuse between the blood and the atmosphere?
* What muscles are involved in breathing?
* How and where is air that you inhaled filtered to remove particulates?
* Contrast the composition of air inhaled and exhaled.
* What types of substances affect the rate of breathing and how do they act on the respiratory
    system?
* How is the buffer system in your blood produced and maintained?
* How is the respiratory cycle controlled?
* How does the respiratory control center of the brain affect the muscles involved in inhaling and
    exhaling air?
* How are the lungs inflated within the thoracic cavity?
* What are the contracted and relaxed positions of the muscles involved in breathing?
* How is sodium concentration distributed in the kidney?
* What is the process by which water and solutes are separated from the blood in the kidney?
* How does the concentration of water and solutes change in the loop of Henle?
* What types of compounds affect the permeability of the collecting duct and how?
* How are materials reabsorbed from the filtrate returned back to the blood?
* What types of ions and blood products do you expect to find in the glomerular filtrate?
* What are "normal" components of the urine?
* What components of the urine indicate that fats are being metabolized as sources of energy?
* Salt and water balance is achieved by which organs system and what are the organs of this
    system?
* What are the tissues of the kidney and what are their functions?
* What are the functions of the kidney?
* What is the pattern of depolarization and contraction of the heart muscle?
* What are the vessels of the circulatory system and what are their structures?
* Where and how is the cardiac cycle regulated?
* How does the heart sense the amount of blood that is returning to it?
* What part of the heart produces the pressure to eject blood and drive circulation?
* What nerves affect heart rate and how?
* What is the pattern of blood flow through the heart?
* What are the common diseases of the arteries and how does this affect blood pressure?
* How is blood propelled through the venous portion of the circulatory system?
* Through which vessels do materials and gasses diffuse?
* What blood vessels return blood from systemic circulation to the atria of the heart?
* Describe the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back.
* Describe the reflex pathway and examples of reflex behaviors>
* What are the different components of the nervous system?
* Describe the "flight-or-fight" response of the sympathetic nervous system.
* What are the different neurotransmitters and how do they affect the sympathetic system?
* How does nicotinic acid affect digestion and why?
* How is the sympathetic nervous system involved in digestion and the absorption of nutrients?